Saturday, July 14, 2018

ip-num 1.1.1 is Released

ip-num, version 1.1.1 is now available.

I will quickly highlight some of the new features, improvement and some bug fixes contained in this release.

Support for IPv4-Mapped IPv6 Address

It is possible to embed an IPv4 address within an IPv6 address. Doing this involves using the least significant 32 bits to encode the IPv4 address, the next least 16 significant bits is turned On, and the remaining 80 bits turned Off. The format of the "IPv4-mapped IPv6 address" Looks like this:

   |                80 bits               | 16 |      32 bits        |
   |0000..............................0000|FFFF|    IPv4 address     |

ip-num now supports creating these kinds of IPv6 addresses. This can be achieved in various ways:

Converting from an existing IPv4
import { IPv4 } from "ip-num/IPv4";

let ipv4 = new IPv4("")
ipv4.toIPv4MappedIPv6().toString() // produces ::ffff:4a7d:2b63

From an existing IPv4 using convenience method on IPv6
import { IPv6 } from "ip-num/IPv6";

let ipv6 = IPv6.fromIPv4(new IPv4(""))
ipv6.toString() // produces ::ffff:4a7d:2b63

From dot-decimal notation using convenience method on IPv6
import { IPv6 } from "ip-num/IPv6";

let ipv6 = IPv6.fromIPv4DotDecimalString("")
ipv6.toString() // produces ::ffff:4a7d:2b63

Convenience methods for creating IPv4, IPv6 and ASN from Binary string

ip-num now has method that allows the creation of IPv4, IPv6, and ASN instances from binary string.

import { Asn } from "ip-num/Asn";
import { IPv4 } from "ip-num/IPv4";
import { IPv6 } from "ip-num/IPv6";

let anAsn = Asn.fromBinaryString('1111');
let anIPv4 = IPv4.fromBinaryString("01001010011111010010101101100011");
let anIPv6 = IPv6.fromBinaryString("01001010011111010010101101100011");

Improvement to various Validators

Big fixes, increased test coverage and improvements were made to Validators. This mainly touches the Validator.isValidIPv4String() and Validator.isValidIPv6String() validators.

For a complete view of the changes included in the v1.1.1 release, please check the change log.

As usual, you can download the source here. Or just run:

npm install ip-num //or npm install ip-num@1.1.1

to add ip-num as a dependency to your next project.

Feel free to open an issue to discuss a feature or to report a bug.

ps: v1.1.0 was unpublished due to inadvertently publishing some dev dependencies as normal dependencies

Saturday, July 07, 2018

Rolling Your Own Monad To Deal With Nested Monads In Scala

In Thoughts On Working With Nested Monad Within The Future Monad In Scala, I wrote about how nested contexts (or technically accurate: nested monads) usually end up creeping into any Scala codebase. And how these nested contexts end up leading to unwieldy code base, that is hard to read and hard to work with.

In that same post, I then mentioned two techniques that can be used to regain readability when dealing with such nested monads. Since the post used the Future Monad as its focus, the first suggested technique was to encode the failure in the Future. The second technique was to use monad transformers.

The blogpost inspired a talk that I gave at the Amsterdam Scala Meet-up group. (You can find the slides from that talk here by the way). In the discussions that ensued after the talk, Devlaam suggested an alternative technique for dealing with the situation: which is to basically create a monadic structure that wraps around the value in the nested context.  Doing this would allow us to regain readability by being able to use for comprehensions with the created monadic structure.

In this post I explore how the idea of rolling your own monad can be applied as a third approach to dealing with the clunkiness of working with nested monad in Scala. Just as with the previous post, Future[Either[E, A] would be the nested monads that would be used for illustrations.

Sunday, May 13, 2018

Thoughts On Working With Nested Monad Within The Future Monad In Scala

This post is about nested contexts, specifically with Future, or more accurately, nested monad within the Future monad. eg: Future[Either[E, A]], Future[Option[A]] etc. And how such nested context could easily lead to hard to read and hence hard to maintain codebase.

These sort of context nesting and its impact is not limited to Future, but I would be using Future as the reference in this post, strictly because they seem to be the form that appears the most in a particular Scala codebase I work on at my day job.

Also in this post, I would use Monad and Context interchangeable to mean the same thing. I would also mention terms like Monads, Monad Stack, Monad Transformers, or For Comprehension without providing any explanation of these terms. This is because the thrust of this post is not to expound on these concepts but to share some recent thoughts I have been having regarding nested context within Future.

A reader not familiar with these concepts should still be able to follow along though.

Thursday, April 19, 2018

ip-num 1.0.1 is Released

ip-num, version 1.0.1 is now available. It is mainly a bug fix release.

The release contains the following changes/fixes:

  • Fixed the throwing of the invalid integer: NaN when invalid IPv4 and IPv6 strings are passed to Validator.isValidIPv4String and Validator.isValidIPv6String validators. Fixed by saiyeek Issue #5
  • Fixed Validator.isValidIPv4CidrNotation improper validation of IPv4 CIDR Issue #6
  • Renamed Subnet to SubnetMask Issue #1
You can download the source here. Or just run:

npm install ip-num //or npm install ip-num@1.0.1

to add ip-num as a dependency to your next project.

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

An easier way to interpret code blocks and curly braces in Scala

I recently realized a nifty way for reading a particular piece of Scala syntax that has always confused me.

Basically how to interpret code that makes use of curly braces when calling functions with multiple parameter lists or code that makes use of {} in place of () when acceptable.

Basically, code that looks like this:

foo() {
  val a = "Hello"
  val b = "world"
  s"$a $b"


foo() { (x:Int) =>
  val y = x * 2
  println(s"output is: $y")

Or a snippet of code defining a controller method using the play framework:

Action.async(action.parser) { request =>"Calling action")

Or some slightly modified code from a code base at work:

extractActiveMembershipFromRequest(membershipKey) { requesterId =>
...some code here...

Or another slightly modified code from work:

secure.hasRequiredRole(user, role) {

Sunday, December 24, 2017

Exploring Type class in Scala: Conclusion

I remember watching Dan Rosen's excellent video tutorial on Type class in Scala, earlier this year. And I remember understanding what he was saying, but yet, I was not sure If I grokked the concept he was trying to explain.

I understood all the code snippets, I could follow along with the examples but yet I was not sure I was getting it. I could not really appreciate the rationale, it felt as if I was rote learning and after watching that video tutorial, I was not sure if I could think in type classes.

Moreover, the whole machinery he was describing just felt way too verbose. And this feeling was not just exclusive to the video, it was how I felt about almost every blog post on type class in Scala back then.

I have since then realized why I felt this way: I was working with the wrong mental model.

Saturday, December 23, 2017

Three Real-world examples of Type class pattern in Scala

In this post, we are going to look at a couple of examples where the type class pattern has been put to use in Scala. This is the sixth post in a series of posts on the Type classes pattern.

This post assumes an understanding of main concepts and terms that come into play when encoding the type class pattern in Scala. If you are new to how type classes are encoded in Scala, then I advise to first read the previous posts in this series. You can do that by starting from the introductory post: Exploring Typeclass in Scala: A knowledge pack

That being said, let us now go ahead and explore 3 examples of the Type class pattern being used in Scala. We start with JSON serialization in the Play Framework.