Saturday, May 07, 2022

Introduction to Key Exchange for the Working Developer

In Introduction to Symmetric Encryption for the Working Developer, we saw how to encrypt and decrypt data. Being symmetric encryption, both the process of encryption and decryption needed the same key. This poses a challenge, which was not addressed in the post: How do one get across the same key to both parties who want to engage in encrypted communication?

Basically how do we perform key exchange? How do we get the same key to parties who want to encrypt and decrypt messages?

An approach is perhaps for the parties involved to first meet in person and exchange the key?

Another approach could be to use another communication channel to first share the key? But then again, if the other communication channel is digital, and it uses symmetric encryption, how should its encryption key be also exchanged? This becomes a catch 22 real quick.

This is the problem Key exchange schemes seek to solve, and thankfully there is a secure way to have two parties exchange secret keys without the need to physically meet in person. This is what this post is about. We will be looking at two popular mechanisms for key exchange: Diffie-Hellman key exchange procedures and application of RSA for key exchange.

As always, as with the other posts in this series, the idea is to provide the basic information needed by the working developer to be able to understand and use these cryptographic primitives without going into the thick of their internal details or implementation.

This post contains the following sections

  • Entering the realm of Public Key Cryptography
  • Introduction to Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange: An Intuition.
  • Whirlwind tour of the Mathematics
  • Diffie-Hellman in code
  • Diffie-Hellman Standards
  • Using RSA for key exchange
  • Conclusion and References

Thursday, May 05, 2022

Introduction to Authenticated Encryption for the Working Developer

In Introduction to Symmetric Encryption for the Working Developer, I presented an overview of symmetric encryption. Which as explained in the post, is a process for establishing confidentiality during communication between two parties.

The only problem is that just encrypting data using symmetric encryption does not provide all the security requirements needed during secure communication.

The issue is that, it is still possible for an eavesdropper to tamper with the message even without being able to make sense of the ciphertexts, and the receiving party won't be made aware that the message they are decrypting has been tampered with and is not exactly the original one that was sent.

Hence even though encryption gives us confidentiality, done alone, it does not guarantee the other security requirements like authenticity/integrity that is often needed - i.e. it does not guarantee that a message came from the right party (authenticity) and it has not been modified in any way (integrity).

Encryption alone is not enough, we need authenticated encryption. This post will introduce the concept of authenticated encryption.

Sunday, May 01, 2022

Introduction to Symmetric Encryption for the Working Developer

Encryption is all about establishing confidentiality. That is, making sure only authorised parties have access to specific data. It involves transforming data into a form that is inscrutable to unauthorised parties but with the ability for authorised parties to transform the data back into its legible form.

Think about two parties communicating without wanting other persons privy to the messages. This is achieved via the cryptographic primitive of Encryption.

In this post, I will provide a whirlwind tour of what encryption is for the working developer. The goal is to provide the basic information needed to be able to properly wield this cryptography tool without going into the inner workings of the algorithm. It is part of the Cryptography101 series of posts.

This post contains the following

  • What Encryption is and its main components
  • What Encryption is not
  • Symmetric Encryption vs Asymmetric Encryption.
  • Block Cipher vs Stream Cipher.
  • Overview of encryption Standards
  • Components of AES
    • Key
    • Padding
    • Mode

Saturday, October 23, 2021

Hash Function in Action: Message Authentication Codes

In Introduction to Cryptographic Hash Functions for the Working Developer, I presented a straight to the point, overview of some essential things a developer should know about cryptographic hash functions. 

This post continues in the theme around hash functions, by taking a look at another cryptographic construction hash functions make possible, that is: Message Authentication Codes (MACs).

It is worth quoting Bruce schneier again:

Much more than encryption algorithms, one-way hash functions are the workhouses of modern cryptography

Because Message Authentication Code based on hash functions is a perfect demonstration of how crucial hash functions are.

This post contains the following sections:

  • Why Hash Functions alone are not enough
  • What is Message Authentication Code
  • What is a Hash Based Authentication Code (HMAC)
  • What is a Keccak Based Authentication Code (KMAC)
  • Some real world applications of Message Authentication Code

Wednesday, October 20, 2021

Introduction to Cryptographic Hash Functions for the Working Developer

Much more than encryption algorithms, one-way hash functions are the workhouses of modern cryptography - Bruce schneier

This post would be a quick, straight to the point, overview of some essential things a developer should know about cryptographic hash functions. It is targeted at the working developer who needs to be familiar enough with cryptographic hash functions in order to use them, but who does not need to know the gory details of how they are implemented, all their possible use cases or how they work internally.

This post contains the following sections:
  1. Cryptographic hash function: A definition
  2. Properties of cryptographic hash functions.
  3. Types of hash functions
    1. Fixed length hash Functions
    2. Extendable Output Functions (XOF)
    3. Password hashing functions 
  4. Some Hashing Hygiene

Tuesday, September 28, 2021

NFTs are not to blame

T206 Honus Wagner baseball card sold for $6.606 million just this August 2021, Pikachu Illustrator, a pokeman card sold for $195,000 in 2019. You can get different Micheal Jordan's basketball card on e-bay ranging from couple of thousands to couple of millions. Sentimental and collectible items have always been part of the human experience. NFTs are not to blame.

Why should pieces of cards with pictures of athletes (or game characters) be worth that much? Why should JPEGs/PNGs be worth that much? Maybe because humans also value things for sentimental reasons just as they do for utilitarian/sustenance reasons.

NFTs only made the act of ownership that was so easy to establish in the physical realm, also possible in the digital realm. It's only natural it will be used for digital arts/collectible culture.

The mistake to avoid, is thinking NFTs are only about digital arts and collectibles. No! they are more than this. The ability to create unique, non fungible digital items that can be provable owned, can be, and is being deployed for other use cases.

Monday, September 13, 2021

Why I am offering NFTs as a crowdfunding perk

Non-equity funding campaigns are always based on promises: "Back us now, and we promise you early access to the product when we launch, or we promise you a discount, digital shout-out or swags". I am currently running an Indiegogo campaign where the promise will also include an NFT: Non Fungible Token, which is a digital artifact that can be used to prove things like ownership. This, as far as I know, is the first time NFTs would be used in this capacity.

In this post, I will shed some light on what NFTs are and share my thoughts on why they are a  perfect perk for a non-equity crowdfunding campaign. In doing so, I will touch on my thoughts on the continual march towards the digitalization of the human experience. How digitalization and technologies like virtual/augmented reality, blockchain technology, etc are making it possible to further digitize aspects of society and human interaction that were previously rife with problems or just plain impossible to digitize.

By the way, my campaign is to kickstart the development of DishAfrik: a recipe app to discover, enjoy and share African recipes. Think of it as Yummly or but focused on African cuisine. One of the perks of the campaign is going to be 54 uniquely generated collages made up of 54 recipes from 54 countries. 54 because currently Africa is home to 54 fully recognised sovereign states.

You should check out the IndieGoGo campaign and back the project :) Find it here 

  • Ever since the third industrial revolution, there has been a march towards digitalization of the physical world. 
  • Blockchain-related technologies, like NFTs, provided the possibility to digitize aspects of the physical world that relied on scarcity, uniqueness, and proof of ownership, aspects that were previously hard to digitize. 
  • DishAfrik's Indiegogo campaign will be making use of NFTs as a perk, using it as a way to capture participation, while also creating digital art in the form of a recipe collage that can also be owned.