Tuesday, October 11, 2022

Introduction to Declarative Macros in Rust

This post will give a quick overview of declarative macros in Rust. If you are not familiar with the concepts of macros in Rust, then read Introduction to Macros in Rust first.

Declarative macros work similar to how pattern matching works. It involves taking inputs, then pattern matching to determine what logic to execute.

The macros definition for creating declarative macros, then contains rules which determine the Rust code that gets generated/executed based on the pattern.

This is why declarative macros are also sometimes referred to as Macros By Example, as the code that is generated depends on the example of patterns that matches.

Monday, October 10, 2022

Introduction to Macros In Rust

This guide will present an overview of the fundamentals a new developer approaching macros in Rust needs to know. If you have read other materials online and you still find the concept of macros in Rust vague, then this post is for you.

The guide will be broken into 4 series of posts. The first post, which is this post, will be a quick overview of macros in Rust. The following 3 posts will then look more deeply into the different types of macros in Rust and how to create them.

The posts in this series are:

  • Introduction to macros in Rust (this post)
  • Introduction to declarative macros in Rust (yet to be published)
  • Introduction to attribute-like procedural macros in Rust (yet to be published)
  • Introduction to function-like procedural macros in Rust (yet to be published)
  • Introduction to custom-derive procedural macros in Rust (yet to be published)

What are macros

Macros are mechanisms for generating or manipulating code programmatically at compile time. In essence, it allows us to treat source code as values. Meaning that, at compile time, we can take inputs: where the input could be another source code or some defined string pattern, and from these inputs, manipulate and generate source codes that form the final compiled code that will be executed.

Macros as a concept are not specific to Rust, as they can be found in languages like Lisp, C/C++, Scala, and a host of others. Although one clear distinction of macros in Rust is that it provides type safety. Meaning that it provides mechanisms to prevent generating programs or source code that are not type-safe.

That is what macros are in a nutshell, a mechanism for taking inputs (other source codes, or just string patterns) and using these to generate source code/program at compile time.

So now that we know what macros are, we talk about how macro usage looks like.

What does macros usage look like in Rust?

Before looking at how to create macros in Rust, it is instructive to see how already created macros are used.

There are two distinct ways of making use of macros in Rust. macros are either used via A syntax I call bang function syntax or via attribute syntax.

The bang function syntax is the syntax that looks like a function call but with an exclamation mark at the end of the function name. For example things like: println!(), dbg!(), format!().

These are used to invoke macros and are not normal function calls.

Attributes syntax, on the other hand, is the syntax used for annotation. It takes the form of #[..] or #![..] and they can be placed on various language elements like functions, structs, enums, etc. This is another syntax that can be used to invoke macros.

A real-world example of attribute syntax being used to invoke macros can be found in the web framework called rocket. For example in the code below, gotten from the documentation here where we see the definition of a handler for the / HTTP path:

fn index() -> &'static str {
    "Hello, world!"

The #[get("/")] syntax is invoking a macro defined by the rocket framework. This invocation means that at compile time, the custom get macro will take the function index() as input, process it, and generate the exact source code, the framework needs to be able to call this function in response to an HTTP GET request to the path /. Essentially fulfilling what a macro is: a mechanism to generate source code at compile time.

The exact syntax used to call a macro depends on the type of macro and how it has been created. Some macro types are called via the bang function syntax, while other kinds are called via the attribute syntax.

Types of Rust macros.

In Rust, there are two types of macros: Declarative macros and Procedural macros. There are then 3 subcategories of procedural macros: Custom-derive macros, Attribute-like macros, and Function-like macros.

Basically types of Rust macros:

  • Declarative macros (also referred to as macro by example or mbe for short)
  • Procedural macros
    • Function-like
    • Attribute-like macros
    • Custom derive macros

The first thing to note in this categorisation is what makes declarative macros different from procedural Macros.

The difference lies in their inputs and outputs, and also how they are created and used.

Declarative macros take what can be described as token fragments while procedural macros take TokenStream as inputs. Token fragments are like string patterns that can further be qualified by a fragment specifier that tells what kind they are. Fragment specifiers can be used to specify the inputs are block, expression, statement, etc. See Fragment Specifiers for an overview of the supported fragment specifiers.

Procedural macros, on the other hand, take in TokenStream which is a more low-level representation of the source code.

The other difference between declarative macros and procedural macros (also the difference between the 3 kinds of procedural macros) is how they are created and used.

Declarative macros and function-like procedural macros are used by a syntax that looks like function invocation but ends with !. for example do_work!(). Meaning when looking at usage it is not possible to tell if a declarative macro is being used or a function-like procedural macro is.

Attribute-like procedural macros on the other hand are used to create a custom annotation, so they are used with the syntax of applying attributes. That is: #[my_macro]. They can also be defined to take helper attributes. That is #[my_macro(attr)]

While custom derives macros are used to define new values that can be passed into the #[derive(...)] macro. For example, if MyMacro is defined to be a custom derive macro, it can then be used as #[derive(MyMacro)]

This completes the quick overview of macros in Rust. The following posts in the series will then go into the details of how these different types of macros are created and used and their different peculiarities.