Monday, January 18, 2021

Union and Intersection Types in TypeScript

This blog post will look at Union and Intersection types in TypeScript. It is part of the Introduction to Advance Types in TypeScript series.

Union and Intersection types are useful features of TypeScript. But they can come across as a bit strange, especially to developers coming from more traditional languages like Java, C#, etc. Hence in this post, I will first start with a background section. This will help in developing the fundamental perspective needed to understand and appreciate union and intersection types in TypeScript.  

Wednesday, January 13, 2021

Generic Constraints, Generic Methods, and Generic Factories in TypeScript

In Introduction to Generics in TypeScript the idea of Generics was introduced. It was shown how Generics provide a mechanism for having a balance between writing code that is flexible enough to apply to a broad range of types but not too flexible that type safety is lost. 

This post will be a short one that builds on that and shows a couple of extra things that can be achieved when using Generics in TypeScript. Three things will be shown in this post: Generic Constraints, Generic Methods, and Generic Factories

Monday, January 11, 2021

Introduction to Generics in TypeScript

Generics provides a mechanism for writing code that is flexible enough to apply to a broad range of types but not too flexible that type safety is lost. 

What exactly does the above statement mean?

To demonstrate what it means, we will define a class and a function that makes use of Generics. The generic class will be an implementation of a List, which only allows adding and retrieving an item and the generic function will be the identity function

Both the List data structure and the Identity function are good examples because they are straightforward enough to allow for easy demonstration of the Generics concepts.

Let’s start with List.

Introduction to Advanced Types in TypeScript

This is the start of a series of posts where I take a look at aspects of TypeScript's type system that can be referred to as "Advanced".  See this as an exploration of TypeScript’s type system past Classes and Interfaces.

A good mental model to have when exploring the advanced part of TypeScript type system is to see it as a more sophisticated mechanism for creating types. 

The normal, non-advanced ways of creating types in TypeScript involve using features of the language like type aliasclass and interface

For example these: 

interface IPerson {
  name: string
  age: number

type TPerson = {
  name: string
  age: number

class CPerson {
  constructor(private name:string, private age: number) {}
  getName() {

  getAge() {

With the advanced type features, types can be constructed directly or indirectly based on other existing types. How exactly this is done, will be the subject of this series of posts.

The posts in the series include:

Sunday, January 10, 2021

How to apply type annotations to functions in TypeScript

This post explores the various ways of ascribing functions with type annotations in TypeScript. To fully appreciate the various ways of ascribing type annotations to functions, we would first take a quick look at the various ways functions can be defined in JavaScript. Once that is done, we then look at how to bring TypeScript's static type annotation into the picture. 

There are mainly two ways of defining functions in JavaScript. Namely: 
  • Function expressions 
  • Function declarations. 
Let’s quickly go over how these two work.